The U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study examined how the lack of a male role model affects the gender development or psychological well being of children of lesbian couples, with the study beginning 26 years ago.
Approximately half of the teens had male role models. The NLLFS teens with and without male role models did not differ from each other in well-being, and also did not differ on stereotypical feminine and masculine traits, like understanding and competitiveness.
The NLLFS is the first and only study to have recorded the progress of children from same sex couples since conception.
Dr Gartrell told MailOnline: “Our [study] is an in-depth, longitudinal, prospective (meaning it is happening in real time, not asking questions about events that occurred 30 years ago) study of PLANNED lesbian families (meaning that the mothers were OUT, IDENTIFIED AS LESBIAN before the children we have been studying were born) that began 26 years ago.”